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Table 2 Results from the six randomised studies on PFO closure in cryptogenic stroke (data from 10, 12, 21)

From: Cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (abridged and translated version)

Parameters   Closure I PC Trial RESPECT REDUCE CLOSE Defense PFO
Stroke (%) M 3.1 2.4 5.8 5.4 6.0 10.5
Stroke (%) C 2.9 0.5 3.6 1.4 0.0 0
TIA (%) M 4.1 3.3 4.8 2.0
TIA (%) C 3.1 2.5 3.4 0
Death (%) M 0 0 2.2 0 0 0
Death (%) C 0 1.0 1.4 0.5 0 0
  1. M medical treatment; C PFO Closure