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Table 1 Large randomized controlled trials investigating pharmacological or interventional treatment for stroke prevention after ICH

From: Resumption of oral anticoagulation after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

Trial name
(ClinicalTrials.gov)
Design Allocation ratio Study population Est. sample size (n) Location Intervention Est. primary completion date
Pharmacological treatment
 APACHE-AF (NCT02565693) Open label 1:1 ICH and AF 100 Netherlands Apixaban vs antiplatelets or none January 2021
 ASPIRE (NCT03907046) Quadruple-blind 1:1 Non-lobar ICH and AF 700 USA Apixaban vs ASS 81 mg/d April 2024
 NASPAF-ICH (NCT02998905) PROBE 1:1 ICH and AF 100 Canada NOAC vs ASS 81 mg/d October 2019
 PRESTIGE-AF Open label 1:1 ICH 662 Europe NOAC vs antiplatelets or none November 2022
 SoSTART (NCT03153150) PROBE 1:1 ICH and AF 800 United Kingdom OAC vs antiplatelets or none July 2021
 STATICH (NCT03186729) PROBE 1:1 ICH and AF or no AF 500 Scandinavia OAC or antiplatelets vs none June 2021
Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO)
 A3ICH (NCT03243175) PROBE 1:1:1 ICH and AF 300 France Apixaban vs LAAO vs antiplatelets or none December 2022
 Amulet IDE (NCT02879448) Open label 1:1 High bleeding risk and AF 1878 Worldwide Amulet LAAO vs WATCHMAN LAAO February 2020
 ASAP-TOO (NCT02928497) Open label 2:1 High bleeding risk and AF 888 Belgium, Denmark, USA LAAO vs antiplatelets or none December 2023
 CLOSURE-AF (NCT03463317) Open label 1:1 High bleeding risk and AF 1512 Germany LAAO vs active comparator (NOAK or VKA) February 2021
 LAAOS III (NCT01561651) Quadruple-blind 1:1 Cardiopulmonary bypass surgery and AF 4812 Canada Surgical LAAO vs best medical treatment November 2022
 PRAGUE-17 (NCT02426944) Open label 1:1 History of bleeding and AF 400 Czech Republic LAAO vs NOAK May 2018
 STROKECLOSE (NCT02830152) PROBE 2:1 ICH and AF 750 Sweden LAAO vs best medical treatment May 2022
  1. Information based on data from international (US, Asian, European) registries
  2. Abbreviations: AF atrial fibrillation, Est. estimated, ICH inracranial hemorrhage, LAAO left atrial appendage occlusion, PROBE prospective randomized open blinded end-point