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Table 1 Demographic, clinical and neuropsychological data of the LH stroke patient groups undergoing anodal or sham tDCS (applied over left posterior parietal cortex, PPC)

From: Anodal tDCS over left parietal cortex expedites recovery from stroke-induced apraxic imitation deficits: a pilot study

  Anodal group
n = 14
Sham group
n = 16
Statistical parameters of the group comparisons
Age (years) 58.4 (±13) 59.8 (±13) t(28) = .305, p = .762
Gender (female/male) 1/13 4/ 12 X2(1) = 1.714, p = .336
Time post stroke (median in days) 25.5 23.0 t(28) = .751, p = .459
Days till follow-up 100.9 (±7.0) 99.4 (±10.7) t(23) = −.396, p = .696
MMSE (max. 30) 28.0 (±1.5) 28.3 (±0.9) t(21) = .604, p = .552
HADS Anxiety score (max. 21, cut-off > 7) 5.2 (±3.5) 4.3 (±3.8) t(26) = −.641, p = .527
HADS Depression score (max. 21, cut-off > 7) 5.0 (±3.1) 3.7 (±2.7) t(26) = − 1.157, p = .258
LQ 96.0 (±8.0) 95.3 (±8.5) t(28) = −.248, p = .806
MRC paresis scale (right hand, max. 5) 3.8 (±2.1) 4.6 (±0.5) t(28) = 1.447, p = .169
Relative grip force of the contra-lesional right hand (%, in relation to the ipsi-lesional left hand) 65.8 (±10.1) 78.0 (±7.4) t(28) = .981, p = .335
mRS 2.5 (±1.2) 2.0 (±1.0) t(28) = −1.165, p = .254
ACL-K (max. 40, cut-off < 33) 25.4 (±11.5) 28.8 (±10.7) t(28) = .837, p = .410
KAS total score (left hand, max. 80, cut-off < 77) 70.6 (±8.6) 70.4 (±13.5) t(28) = −.047, p = .963
KAS pantomime score (max. 40) 36.1 (±5.0) 35.7 (±4.5) t(28) = −.263, p = .794
KAS imitation score (max. 40) 34.4 (±4.8) 34.4 (±9.2) t(28) = −.019, p = .985
De Renzi actual object use test (left hand, max. 32) 31.4 (±0.9) 31.0 (±2.0) t(28) = −.744, p = .463
  1. Given are the means and the standard deviations from the mean (SD, in parenthesis; if not stated differently). There were no significant differences between the anodal and the sham patient groups for any variable (all p > .1)
  2. LH left hemisphere, tDCS transcranial direct current stimulation, PPC posterior parietal cortex, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, LQ Laterality quotient as assessed by the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, MRC paresis scale Medical Research Council rating scale for assessing paresis, mRS modified Rankin scale, ACL-K Aphasia Check List-short version, KAS Cologne Apraxia Screening