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Table 1 Summary of the clinical characteristics and concentrations of CSF-biomarkers assessed in n = 24 CSVD patients (continuous data given as mean ± SD unless otherwise stated)

From: Optical coherence tomography-based assessment of retinal vascular pathology in cerebral small vessel disease

Age (years)73.8 ± 8.5
Sex17 males, 7 females
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)157.9 ± 26.9
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)84.5 ± 14.2
Low density lipoprotein (mmol/L)2.3 ± 0.9
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; mmol/mol)39.4 ± 4.6
Number of antihypertensive medications
 One (n)13
 Two (n)5
 Three (n)6
Mini mental state examination score (MMSE) (median, 25–75 percentile)27 (24–28)
Magnetic resonance imaging lesion load (WMH) (mm3) (median, 25–75 percentile)33.2 (13.5–45.9)
Number of Lacunes (median, 25–75 percentile)2 (0.75–3.25)
Number of microbleeds (median, 25–75 percentile)2 (0–7.0)
Visible Virchow-Robin perivascular spaces
 none (n)5
 present (n)19
Fazekas-Score [13]
 One (n)6
 Two (n)10
 Three (n)8
Chitinase 3 like 1 (CHI3L1) (ng/ml)169.6 (± 60.4)
Glial fibrillary acidic proteins (GFAP) (ng/ml) (median, 25–75 percentile)14.2 (10.1–18.4)
Phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNfH) (pg/ml) (median, 25–75 percentile)663 (480–1022)
Zona occludens 1 (ZO-1) (pg/ml) (median, 25–75 percentile)1005 (783–1377)