Skip to main content

Table 4 Reference ranges for routine parameters

From: S1 guidelines “lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid analysis” (abridged and translated version)

Parameter Method Reference range
Appearance Inspection clear, colorless
Cell count (Leukocytes/μL) Manual evaluation by light microscopy, Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber < 5
Differential cytology staining Manual evaluation by light microscopy, Pappenheim staining Lymphomonocytic (ratio 2:1 bis 3:1)
Total protein (mg/L) Nephelometry/Turbidimetry < 500
L-Lactate (mmol/L) Enzymatic 0.9 – 2.7 (age dependent) [102]
Glucose (L/S) Enzymatic > 0.50
Albumin (L/Sx10−3) Nephelometry < 5 - 10 (age dependent)
Ig-Synthesis in CNS Nephelometry Not detectable
Pathogens Gram staining, culture, light microscopy, PCR, antigen detection Not detectable
Pathogen-specific antibody (intrathecal synthesis) Enzyme immunoassays Not detectable
Brain-specific proteins (pg/mL) Enzyme immunoassays Tau-Protein (< 450)
Phospho-Tau (< 60)
Abeta1-42 (> 550)
(Laboratory- and assay dependent ranges)
Abeta1-42/Abeta1-40-Quotient (> 0,1)
  1. L/S = CSF/Serum quotient