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Table 2 Selected drugs for the treatment of delirium (in alphabetical order per class)

From: SOP: treatment of delirium

drug

dose

 

antagonism

anti-psychotic

sedating

dementia

parkinson’s

caveat

Neuroleptic drugs

 clozapine

25 mg

0–0-1

5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, α1

+

+

+

+

Risk of agranulocytosis

 haloperidol

1 mg

1–0-1

D2

+++

no i.v. application

 melperone

25–50 mg

(1)-0–1

D2, α1

+

++

Dose depending on agitation level, available in several EU countries

 pipamperone

40 mg

(1)-0–1

5-HT2A, D4, α1

+

++

+

Dose depending on agitation level

 quetiapine

25–50 mg

(1)-0–1

5-HT2A, D2

+

++

+

+

Dose depending on agitation level

 risperidone

0,5–1 mg

1–0-1

D2, 5-HT2A

+++

+

Dose reduction in renal insufficiency

α2-Agonists

 clonidine

1.5–2.5 μg/kg/h

 

α2 (agonist)

 

+++

+

+

ICU, bradycardia

 dexmedetomidine

0.7 μg/kg/h

 

α2 (agonist)

+++

+

+

ICU, bradycardia, contraindication stroke

Benzodiazepines

 diazepam

5 mg

prn

GABAA

+++

short term

 lorazepam

0.5–1 mg

prn

GABA

+++

short term

 midazolam

7.5–15 mg

prn

GABAA

+++

short term

 oxazepam

10 mg

prn

GABAA

2

+++

short term