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Table 1 Patient baseline characteristics

From: Closure or medical therapy of patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic stroke: prospective case series

   Standardized mean differences for comparison of
All (N = 236) PFO-closure (n = 146) MTA (n = 90) PFO-closure
≤60 years
+ high-risk PFO (n = 103)
PFO-closure
> 60 years
+ high-risk PFO (n = 43)
MTA
≤60 years
+ high-risk PFO (n = 20)
MTA
> 60 years
+ high-risk PFO (n = 28)
MTA
≤60 years
+ low-risk PFO (n = 18)
MTA
> 60 years
+ low-risk PFO (n = 24)
PFO-closure > 60 vs. ≤60 years PFO-closure vs. MTA in high-risk PFO
≤60 years
PFO-closure vs. MTA in high-risk PFO
> 60 years
low-risk vs. high-risk PFO
Age, yearsa,b 58 (47–66), 18–88 53 (45–62), 18–82 64 (52–75), 33–88 49 (40–54), 18–60 66 (63–73), 61–82 53 (41–58), 33–60 75 (69–79), 61–88 51 (47–55), 33–66 70 (65–76), 61–86 2.78 0.30 0.94 0.48
Sex, femalec 91 (38.6) 59 (40.4) 32 (36) 45 (43.7) 14 (33) 9 (45) 9 (32) 7 (39) 7 (29) 0.23 0.03 0.01 0.13
Pre-stroke mRS 0c 221 (93.6) 138 (94.5) 83 (92) 100 (97.1) 38 (88) 20 (100) 25 (89) 16 (89) 22 (92) 0.34 0.25 0.03 0.15
Medical history
 Hypertensionc 117 (49.6) 73 (50.0) 44 (49) 41 (39.8) 32 (74) 4 (20) 19 (68) 7 (39) 14 (58) 0.75 0.44 0.15 0.01
 History of smokingc 56 (23.7) 37 (25.3) 19 (21) 33 (32.0) 4 (9) 5 (25) 5 (18) 7 (39) 2 (8) 0.59 0.16 0.25 0.07
 Hyperlipidemiac 62 (26.3) 37 (25.3) 25 (28) 24 (23.3) 13 (30) 3 (15) 6 (21) 5 (28) 11 (46) 0.16 0.21 0.20 0.32
 Obesityc 26 (11.0) 17 (11.6) 9 (10) 12 (11.7) 5 (12) 1 (5) 2 (7) 3 (17) 3 (13) < 0.01 0.24 0.15 0.12
 Diabetesc 26 (11.0) 9 (6.2) 17 (19) 5 (4.9) 4 (9) 2 (10) 6 (21) 3 (17) 6 (25) 0.17 0.20 0.34 0.36
 CAD and/or prior MIc 15 (6.4) 5 (3.4) 10 (11) 5 (4.9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (7) 2 (11) 6 (25) 0.32 0.32 0.39 0.50
 Prior IS/TIAc 30 (12.7) 18 (12.3) 12 (13) 8 (7.8) 10 (23) 2 (10) 4 (14) 3 (17) 3 (13) 0.44 0.08 0.23 0.06
Brain imaging
 Acute ischemic lesions in multiple circulationsc 15 (6.4) 7 (4.8) 8 (9) 5 (4.9) 2 (5) 1 (5) 4 (14) 2 (11) 1 (4) 0.01 0.01 0.33 0.04
Echocardiography
 Small shuntc 28 (11.9) 10 (6.8) 18 (20) 8 (7.8) 2 (5) 0 (0) 1 (4) 6 (33) 11 (46) 0.14 0.93 0.18 2.42
 Moderate shuntc 65 (27.5) 32 (21.9) 33 (37) 23 (22.3) 9 (21) 0 (0) 8 (29) 12 (67) 13 (54)
 Large shuntc 143 (60.6) 104 (71.2) 39 (43) 72 (69.9) 32 (74) 20 (100) 19 (68) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 ASAc 99 (41.9) 75 (51.4) 24 (27) 47 (45.6) 28 (65) 3 (15) 21 (75) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.40 0.71 0.22 1.44
 LVEF, %d 59.2 ± 3.6 59.3 ± 3.7 59.1 ± 3.3 59.5 ± 3.1 58.7 ± 4.9 60.0 ± 0.0 57.7 ± 5.0 60.0 ± 0.0 59.4 ± 3.1 0.19 0.24 0.21 0.17
Qualifying event
 ISc 187 (79.2) 119 (81.5) 68 (76) 87 (84.5) 32 (74) 15 (75) 23 (82) 13 (72) 17 (71) 0.25 0.24 0.19 0.22
 TIAc 49 (20.8) 27 (18.5) 22 (24) 16 (15.5) 11 (26) 5 (25) 5 (18) 5 (28) 7 (29)
 Admission NIHSSa 1 (0–4) 1 (0–4) 1 (0–4) 1 (0–4) 2 (0–4) 1 (0–2) 1 (0–3) 3 (0–6) 1 (0–5) 0.07 0.36 0.02 0.23
 D-dimers > 0.5 μg/mLc 47 (19.9) 26 (17.8) 21 (23) 18 (17.5) 8 (19) 2 (10) 9 (32) 2 (11) 8 (33) 0.03 0.22 0.32 0.12
 Deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolismc 12 (5.1) 7 (4.8) 5 (6) 4 (3.9) 3 (7) 2 (10) 1 (4) 1 (6) 1 (4) 0.14 0.24 0.15 0.02
 RoPE scorea 5 (4–7) 6 (4–7) 5 (3–6) 7 (5–8) 4 (3–5) 7 (6–7) 3 (3–4) 6 (5–7) 4 (3–5) 2.01 0.05 0.30 0.52
  1. ASA atrial septal aneurysm, CAD coronary artery disease, IS ischemic stroke, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, MI myocardial infarction, mRS modified Rankin Scale score, MTA medical therapy alone, n/a not applicable, NIHSS National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, PFO patent foramen ovale, RoPE Risk of Paradoxical Embolism, TIA transient ischemic attack
  2. amedian (interquartile range), brange, cnumber (%), dmean ± standard deviation