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Table 1 Baseline and outcome parameters of patients admitted to the stroke unit

From: Consequences of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on emergency and stroke care in a German tertiary stroke center

Time interval A
March 16–April 12 in 2019, same time interval one year before COVID-19 spring lockdown
B
March 16–April 12 in 2020,
COVID-19 spring lockdown
C
November 2–November 29 in 2020,
COVID-19 fall lockdown light
p-value, test
n= 70   63   68   
Median age (IQR) 79 (69–85)   77 (64–82)   80 (62–85)   ns, ANOVA
Male gender 32 (45.7%)   30 (47.6%)   32 (47.1%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
Vascular risk factors
 Arterial hypertension 55 (78.6%)   44 (69.8%)   49 (72.1%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Diabetes Mellitus 14 (20%)   18 (28.6%)   17 (25.0%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Hyperlipidemia 27 (38.6%)   18 (28.6%)   23 (33.8%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
Coronary heart disease 14 (20%)   9 (14.3%)   13 (19.1%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Smoking 5 (7.1%)   10 (15.9%)   8 (11.9%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Peripheral artery disease 3 (4.3%)   5 (7.9%)   3 (4.4%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 No vascular risk factors 6 (8.6%)   4 (6.3%)   0 (0%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
Type of stroke
 Cerebral infarction 53 (75.7%)   47 (74.6%)   53 (77.9%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 TIA 11 (15.7%)   10 (15.9%)   11 (16.2%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
  Intracerebral hemorrhage 6 (8.6%)   6 (9.5%)   4 (5.9%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
Ischemic stroke etiology
 Cardioembolic 23 (32.9%)   21 (33.3%)   13 (19.1%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Embolic stroke of undetermined source 6 (8.6%)   10 (15.9%)   19 (27.9%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Microangiopathic 12 (17.1%)   13 (20.6%)   6 (8.8%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Macroangiopathic/Large artery arteriosclerosis 10 (14.3%)   4 (6.3%)*   21 (30.9%)*   *p < 0.05 for B and C,
Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Patent foramen ovale associated 5 (7.1%)   3 (4.8%)   3 (4.4%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Unknown ischemic stroke etiology 8 (11.4%)   6 (9.5%)   12 (17.6%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Large vessel occlusion (ICA, carotid T, M1, M2, basilar artery) 25 (36%)   11 (17%)   15 (22%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
Clinical and intrahospital management characteristics
 I.v. thrombolysis 17 (24.3%)   15 (23.8%)   14 (20.6%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Endovascular therapy 21 (30%)*   8 (12.7%)*   10 (14.7%)   *p < 0.05 for A and B, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Admission within 4.5 h after stroke onset 21 (30%)   21 (33.3%)   32 (47.1%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Median onset to door time in minutes (IQR) 99.0 (57.0–445.25) n = 32 120.5 (55.5–300.5) n = 32 120 (59–684) n = 37 ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Median door to needle time in minutes (IQR) 47 (37.3–57.3) n = 7 42 (20–62.5) n = 13 40 (28.25–78.75) n = 12 ns, ANOVA
 Median door to groin puncture time in minutes (IQR) 77 (32–116) n = 19 85 (36–85) n = 7 121.50 (26.25–176.25) n = 8 ns, ANOVA
 Median NIHSS at admission (IQR) 4 (1–11) n = 68 4 (1.8–10) n = 62 5 (1.5–8) n = 65 ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Median NIHSS at discharge (IQR) 1 (0–4) n = 59 1 (0–5) n = 54 1 (0–5.5) n = 61 ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Median mRS at admission (IQR) 3 (1–5) n = 70 3 (2–4) n = 63 3 (2–4) n = 68 ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Median mRS at discharge (IQR) 2 (0–4) n = 69 2 (1–4) n = 63 2 (1–4) n = 68 ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 Median In-hospital days (IQR) 6 (4–9)   6 (4–9)   7.5 (5–11)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
 In-hospital deaths 9 (12.9%)   8 (12.7%)   7 (10.3%)   ns, Kruskal-Wallis-Test
  1. Continuous variables are reported as medians with interquartile range (IQR), categorial variables are reported as absolute numbers and as proportion. Between-group comparisons for categorical data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis-test and post-hoc Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction. Group comparisons for continuous data were performed with ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni correction (normally distributed) or Kruskal-Wallis-test and post-hoc Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction (non-normally distributed). All tests were two tailed and results were assumed statistically significant with p < 0.05. Ns indicates non-statistical significance