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Table 1 Summary of Literature Search: scores to prognosticate outcome after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

From: Prognostication after intracerebral hemorrhage: a review

Study (First Author, publication year) Score name Geographic location of derivation cohort (N of score derivation cohort) Score components Outcome measure(s) Timing of outcome measures (in original score publication) Score performance measures (in original score publication)
Tuhrim et al., 1988 [11] No name USA (82) GCS
ICH volume
Pulse pressure
Mortality 30 days Expected-observed classification
Tuhrim et al., 1991 [12] No name USA (191) GCS
ICH volume
IVH
Pulse pressure
Mortality 30 days Expected-observed classification
Broderick et al., 1993 [13] No name USA (188) GCS
ICH volume
Mortality 30 days Sensitivity, specificity, PPV
Masé et al., 1995 [14] No name Italy (138) GCS
ICH volume
IVH
Mortality 30 days Expected-observed classification
Hemphill et al., 2001 [15] ICH score USA (152) Age
GCS
ICH volume
Infratentorial origin
IVH
Mortality 30 days Descriptive
Cheung et al., 2003 [16] New ICH score Hong Kong (142) IVH
NIHSS
Pulse pressure
Subarachnoid extension
Temperature
Mortality
Favorable outcome (mRS < 3)
30 days Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, Youden index
Godoy et al., 2006 [17] Modified ICH Scores
(mICH-A, −B)
Argentina (153) Age
Comorbidity
GCS
ICH volume
IVH
Infratentorial origin
Mortality
Favorable outcome (GOS 4–5)
30 days (mort.)
6 months (GOS)
Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, AUC, Youden index
Weimar et al., 2006 [9] Essen ICH score Germany (260) Age
Level of consciousness
NIHSS
Functional recovery (BI > 90)
Favorable outcome (GOS 4–5, or BI > 50)
100 days
(functional recovery)
6 and 12 months (favorable outcome)
Sensitivity, specificity, AUC, external validation (independent cohort, n = 173)
Ruiz-Sandoval et al., 2007 [18] ICH grading scale Mexico (378) Age
GCS
ICH volume (supratentorial or infratentorial)
IVH
Location
Mortality In-hospital
30 days
AUC, R2
Cho et al., 2008 [19] Modified ICH score (mICH score) China (226) GCS
ICH volume
IVH or hydrocephalus
Mortality
Favorable outcome (GOS 4–5 OR BI > 50)
6 months
12 months (both endpoints at both time points)
AUC, Youden index
Rost et al., 2008 [20] FUNC score USA (418) Age
GCS
ICH location
ICH volume
Pre-ICH cognitive impairment
Functional independence (GOS 4–5) 90 days AUC,
External validation (in independent patient cohort from same institution, n = 211)
Chuang et al., 2009 [21] Simplified ICH score Taiwan (293) Age
Dialysis dependence
GCS
History of hypertension
Serum glucose
Mortality 30 days Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, positive/negative likelihood ratios, AUC
Li et al., 2012 [22] ICH Index (ICHI) China (227) Age
GCS
Glucose
WBC
Mortality In-hospital AUC
Ji et al., 2013 [23] ICH functional outcome score (ICH-FOS) China (1953) Age
GCS
Glucose
ICH location
ICH volume
(supratentorial or infratentorial)
IVH
NIHSS
Mortality
Unfavorable outcome (mRS 3–6)
30 days
3, 6, and 12 months
Hosmer-Lemeshow test, AUC, external validation (in independent patient cohort from same institution, n = 1302)
Romero et al., 2013 [24] Spot sign score (SSSc) USA (131) CT characteristics
Number of spot signs
Maximum axial dimension
Maximum attenuation
[ICH expansion]
Mortality
Unfavorable outcome
In-hospital (mortality)
3 months (mortality and unfavorable outcome)
Descriptive
Zis et al., 2015 [25] Emergency department ICH score (EDICH) Greece (191) GCS
ICH location
ICH volume
INR
IVH
Mortality 30 days Sensitivity, specificity, AUC
Gupta et al., 2017 [26] ICH outomes project (ICHOP) scores (ICHOP3, ICHOP12) USA (365) APACHE II
GCS
ICH volume
NIHSS
Pre-morbid mRS
Unfavorable outcome (mRS 4–6) 3 and 12 months AUC, McFadden R2, Cox&Snell R2, Nagelkerke R2
Sembill et al., 2017 [27] Max ICH score Germany (583) Age
IVH
Lobar ICH volume
NIHSS
Non-lobar ICH volume
Oral anticoagulation
Unfavorable outcome (mRS 4–6) 12 months AUC, Youden index
Braksick et al., 2018 [28] ICH scoreFS USA (274) Age
FOUR score
ICH volume
Infratentorial origin
IVH
Mortality 30 days AUC
  1. Abbreviations: AUC area under the curve (i.e. area under the receiver operating characteristic curve), ICH intracerebral hemorrhage, GCS Glasgow coma scale, IVH intraventricular hemorrhage, mRS modified Rankin scale, BI Barthel index, GOS Glasgow outcome scale, PPV positive predictive value, NPV negative predictive value, WBC white blood count, NIHSS National institute of health stroke scale