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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of patients

From: Treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis with high-dose all-trans retinoic acid – no clear evidence of positive disease modifying effects

Patient No 0 (Index) 1 2 3 Control cohort
Sex  female female  male male female n = 31,
male n = 19
Age 56 59 60 39 Mean = 53,9 ± 3.1
[range 28–82]
Course of MS SPMS PPMS PPMS SPMS PPMS n = 26
SPMS n = 24
Age of disease onset 15 (RRMS) / 23 (SPMS) 52 58 29 (RRMS) / 35 (SPMS) Mean = 40.6 ± 3.8
[range 18–71]
EDSS baseline 6.5 5.0 5.5 4.0 4.92 ± 0.23
[range 1.5–7.5]
Previous treatment Azathioprine, betaferon, e MP q3m, mitoxantrone Mitoxantrone, MP q3m MP q3m Glatiramer acetat, fingolimod, teriflunomide, MP q3m various
Concomitant treatment Botolinum toxin q3m Fampridin,
L-Thyroxin
Pramipexol THC/CBD-spray various
  1. PPMS primary progressive multiple sclerosis, SPMS secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, EDSS extended disease severity score, MP q3m high dose intra-venous methyprednisolone (1000 mg/day for 3–5 days) every 3 months