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Table 2 Differential diagnosis of neurogenic dysphagia in relation to additional neurological symptoms (according to [65])

From: Diagnosis and treatment of neurogenic dysphagia – S1 guideline of the German Society of Neurology

Additional neurological symptoms Differential diagnoses
Acute CNS symptoms cerebral infarctions/bleeding
relapse of multiple sclerosis
Slowly progressive CNS symptoms brain tumors
chronic progressive multiple sclerosis
Brainstem symptoms brainstem infarctions/bleeding
multiple sclerosis
listeria rhombencephalitis
paraneoplastic brainstem encephalitis
Neurocognitive disorders Alzheimer’s disease
vascular dementia
frontotemporal lobar degeneration
Lewy body dementia
progressive supranuclear palsy
Extrapyramidal motor symptoms Parkinson’s disease
Huntington’s disease
Neuroleptic-induced dysphagia
Wilson’s disease
Progressive bulbar paralysis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Pseudobulbar paralysis
Primary lateral sclerosis
Arnold–Chiari malformation, type I
Kennedy’s disease
Post-polio syndrome
IgLON5 bulbar paralysis
Cerebellar symptoms Multiple sclerosis
Hereditary ataxias
Niemann–Pick disease, type C
Subacute cerebellar degeneration
Cranial nerve palsies Skull base tumors
Meningeosis neoplastica
Basal meningitis
Subtypes of Guillain–Barré syndrome
Ptosis and/or ocular symptoms Subtypes of Guillain–Barré syndrome
Myasthenia gravis
Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy
Mitochondrial myopathies
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy
Neuropathy Guillain–Barré syndrome
Critical illness neuropathy
Myopathy Myositis
Myotonic dystrophies
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy
Mitochondrial myopathies
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy
Myotonic syndrome Myotonic dystrophies
Trismus and/or risus sardonicus Tetanus