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Table 3 Comparisons of health-related quality of life among individuals with TSC, as measured by the QOLIE-31 (German version) questionnaire, according to several potential predictors and assessed using the Kruskal–Wallis and Chi-square tests

From: Quality of life and its predictors in adults with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC): a multicentre cohort study from Germany

Predictor Measure N Category Mean ± SD 95% CI p-value*
Sociodemographic aspects
 Sex VAS 65 Male 64.2 19.9 59.2–69.1 0.790
55 Female 63.6 22.1 57.6–69.5
Overall score 65 Male 62.2 20.2 57.5–67.2 0.277
55 Female 65.5 19.0 60.3–70.6
 Age VAS 55 18–28 y 67.1 20.3 61.6–72.6 0.136
63 29–61 y 60.9 21.0 55.6–66.2
Overall score 55 18–28 y 64.4 20.6 58.9–70.0 0.666
53 29–61 y 62.7 19.0 57.9–67.5
 Employment VAS 49 Yes 70.6 19.7 64.9–76.2 0.001†
34 No 54.7 20.8 46.4–60.9
Overall score 49 Yes 71.7 19.9 66.9–76.4 < 0.001†
34 No 51.5 16.5 44.5–58.4
 Grade of disability VAS 38 0–80 65.0 17.4 59.2–70.7 0.008†
56 90–100 54.3 18.1 49.4–59.1
Overall score 38 0–80 66.1 16.5 60.7–71.5 < 0.001†
56 90–100 54.2 16.5 49.7–58.6
Clinical aspects
 Mutation type VAS 25 TSC1 70.3 18.0 62.9–77.8 0.099
31 TSC2 61.0 23.5 52.3–69.6
Overall score 25 TSC1 68.8 17.3 61.6–75.9 0.424
31 TSC2 63.0 21.4 55.2–70.9
 Active epilepsy VAS 49 Yes 56.7 19.4 51.2–62.3 0.003†
71 No 68.8 20.5 64.0–73.7
Overall score 49 Yes 52.1 17.7 47.0–57.2 < 0.001†
71 No 71.7 16.7 67.8–75.7
 Structural brain VAS 85 Yes 62.3 20.9 57.8–66.8 0.232
35 No 67.7 20.5 60.6–74.7
Overall score 85 Yes 60.5 20.1 56.2–64.8 0.007†
35 No 71.5 16.3 65.9–77.1
 SEGA VAS 50 Yes 62.0 22.1 55.7–68.3 0.458
70 No 65.2 20.0 60.5–70.0
Overall score 50 Yes 59.4 20.1 53.7–65.2 0.041
70 No 66.7 18.9 62.2–71.2
 Neuropsychiatric VAS 59 Yes 55.1 20.4 49.8–60.5 < 0.001†
61 No 72.3 17.6 67.8–76.9
Overall score 59 Yes 53.2 18.0 48.5–57.9 < 0.001†
61 No 73.8 15.4 69.9–77.8
 AML VAS 70 Yes 61.5 22.3 56.2–66.9 0.146
50 No 67.2 18.4 61.9–72.4
Overall score 70 Yes 63.6 20.8 58.6–68.5 0.819
50 No 63.9 18.2 58.7–69.0
 Lymphangioleiomyomatosis VAS 12 Yes 63.3 14.4 54.2–72.5 0.829
108 No 63.9 21.5 59.8–68.1
Overall score 12 Yes 70.2 14.9 60.8–79.7 0.256
108 No 63.0 20.0 59.2–66.8
 Skin VAS 115 Yes 63.8 20.9 59.9–67.7 0.822
5 No 66.0 20.7 40.3–91.8
Overall score 115 Yes 63.7 19.6 60.1–67.3 0.855
5 No 63.3 22.9 34.8–91.8
 Number of affected organs VAS 31 1–3 76.7 16.7 70.6–82.8 Ref < 0.001†
72 4–6 62.2 19.2 57.7–66.7 0.001
17 7–8 47.7 21.6 36.6–58.8 < 0.001
Overall score 31 1–3 71.7 18.4 65.0–78.5 Ref 0.007†
72 4–6 62.8 18.9 58.4–67.2 0.026
17 7–8 52.9 20.0 42.6–63.2 0.002
Therapeutic aspects
 Anti-seizure medication polytherapya VAS 52 Yes 58.1 19.0 52.8–64.4 0.178
31 No 64.8 20.1 57.4–72.2
Overall score 52 Yes 54.9 17.8 49.9–59.8 0.032
31 No 63.5 18.6 56.6–70.3
 Everolimus VAS 51 Yes 59.3 22.0 53.1–65.5 0.063
69 No 67.3 19.4 62.6–71.9
Overall score 51 Yes 60.5 20.0 54.9–66.1 0.212
69 No 66.1 19.1 61.5–70.7
 LAEP VAS 36 < 35 76.7 18.0 70.6–82.8 < 0.001†
83 ≥35 58.0 19.3 53.8–62.2
Overall score 36 < 35 80.5 12.7 76.2–84.7 < 0.001†
83 ≥35 56.0 17.2 52.3–59.8
  1. AML angiomyolipoma, CI confidence interval, LAEP Liverpool Adverse Events Profile, QOLIE-31 Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-31 items, ref. reference category, SD standard deviation, SEGA subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, TSC tuberous sclerosis complex, VAS visual analogue scale, y years
  2. aIncludes only individuals with TSC-associated epilepsy/seizures
  3. *Comparisons corrected for multiple testing using the Benjamini–Hochberg false-discovery rate method, † and bold type denotes a q-value of < 0.05 (false-discovery rate)