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Table 4 Comparisons of mood among individuals with TSC, as measured by the NDDI-E (German version) questionnaire, according to several potential predictors and assessed using Kruskal–Wallis and Chi-square tests

From: Quality of life and its predictors in adults with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC): a multicentre cohort study from Germany

Predictor N Category Mean ± SD 95% CI p-value*
Sociodemographic aspects
 Sex 66 Male 12.32 4.0 11.3–13.3 0.767
55 Female 12.58 4.2 11.5–13.7
 Age 56 18–28 y 11.8 4.0 10.8–12.9 0.192
63 29–61 y 13.0 4.2 11.9–14.0
 Employment 49 Yes 11.8 3.9 10.7–12.9 0.056
34 No 13.8 4.6 12.2–15.9
 Grade of disability 38 0–80 12.5 4.1 11.2–13.9 0.5327
57 90–100 13.2 3.6 12.2–14.2
Clinical aspects
 Mutation type 25 TSC1 12.4 4.5 10.6–14.3 0.791
31 TSC2 12.3 3.6 10.9–13.6
 Active epilepsy 50 Yes 13.2 3.8 12.2–14.3 0.074
71 No 11.9 4.2 10.9–12.9
 Structural brain 86 Yes 13.1 4.1 12.3–14.0 0.004†
35 No 10.7 3.5 9.5–11.9
 SEGA 51 Yes 13.1 4.2 12.0–14.3 0.046
70 No 11.9 4.0 11.0–12.9
 Neuropsychiatric 60 Yes 13.7 4.0 12.6–14.7 0.001†
61 No 11.3 3.8 10.3–12.2
 AML 70 Yes 12.3 4.3 11.3–13.4 0.866
51 No 12.6 3.8 11.5–13.7
 Lymphangioleiomyomatosis 12 Yes 12.2 4.1 9.5–14.8 0.878
109 No 12.5 4.1 11.7–13.3
 Skin 116 Yes 12.3 4.0 11.6–13.1 0.281
5 No 14.6 5.9 7.3–21.9
 Number of affected organs 31 1–3 11.4 4.1 9.8–12.9 0.006†
73 4–6 12.3 4.0 11.4–13.3
17 7–8 14.8 3.6 13.0–16.7
Therapeutic aspects
 Anti-seizure medication polytherapya 53 Yes 12.8 3.5 11.9–13.8 0.487
31 No 13.6 4.1 12.0–15.1
 Everolimus 51 Yes 12.7 4.1 11.6–13.9 0.351
70 No 12.2 4.1 11.3–13.2
 LAEP 36 < 35 10.0 3.7 8.7–11.2 < 0.001†
84 ≥35 13.6 3.7 12.8–14.4
  1. AML angiomyolipoma, CI confidence interval, LAEP Liverpool Adverse Events Profile, NDDI-E Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy, ref. reference category, SD standard deviation, SEGA subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, TSC tuberous sclerosis complex, VAS visual analogue scale, y years
  2. aIncludes only individuals with TSC-associated epilepsy/seizures
  3. *comparisons corrected for multiple testing using the Benjamin Hochberg false-discovery rate method, † and bold type denotes a q-value of < 0.05 (false-discovery rate)