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Table 3 Descriptive statistics and results of the regression models

From: Characterization of advanced Parkinson’s disease in Germany: results of the non-interventional OBSERVE-PD study

Variable International model German model
Description OR (95% CI) Description OR (95% CI)
Patient characteristic
 Age, mean ± SD, years 66.9 ± 9.9   68.7 ± 9.1 0.86 (0.78–0.96)
 Sex, n (%)
  Male 1444 (59.2) 1.36 (1.03–1.8) 107 (60.5)  
  Female 994 (40.8) Reference 70 (39.5)  
 Time since PD diagnosis, mean ± SD, years 7.7 ± 5.9 1.12 (1.08–1.16) 8.0 ± 6.2 1.34 (1.11–1.63)
 UPDRS V: Modified Hoehn & Yahr Staging, mean ± SD 2.5 ± 0.8 2.04 (1.57–2.65) 2.7 ± 0.9 5.74 (1.34–24.58)
Treatment
 Number of current oral treatments, mean ± SD 2.0 ± 1.1 1.19 (1.03–1.37) 2.1 ± 1.0 0.46 (0.18–1.18)
 Delphi 7. ≥ 5 times daily oral levodopa dosing
  Yes 740 (30.5) 2.02 (1.47–2.79) 75 (42.6)  
  No 1687 (69.5) Reference 101 (57.4)  
 Current device-aided treatment (ongoing/about to start), n (%)
  Yes 549 (22.6) 8.68 (5.45–13.82) 31 (17.6)  
  No 1883 (77.4) Reference 145 (82.4)  
Dyskinesia
 UPDRS IV Q32: Dyskinesia (duration), n (%)
  0–25% of day 2074 (85.4) Reference 152 (85.9)  
  26–100% of day 355 (14.6) 1.44 (0.95–2.19) 25 (14.1)  
 Delphi 4. ≥ 2 h of the day with troublesome dyskinesia
  Yes 406 (17) 1.60 (1.02–2.49) 26 (15.4)  
  No 1985 (83) Reference 143 (84.6)  
Motor symptom
 Motor fluctuations, n (%)
  Yes 1352 (55.5) 3.79 (2.78–5.17) 110 (62.1) 49.72 (8.47–291.91)
  No 1086 (44.5) Reference 67 (37.9) Reference
 UPDRS III: Motor examination, mean ± SD 25.7 ± 13.9   25.6 ± 12.1 1.09 (0.99–1.20)
 Delphi 6. “off” time ≥ every 3 h
  Yes 546 (22.4) 1.56 (1.05–2.33) 40 (22.6)  
  No 1888 (77.6) Reference 137 (77.4)  
Daily living
 Patient requires help at home with daily activities
  Yes 1146 (47.3) 1.78 (1.30–2.43) 99 (56.3)  
  No/not applicable 1275 (52.7) Reference 77 (43.8)  
 Patient lives at a nursing home/other
  Yes 56 (2.3) 4.64 (1.70–12.69) 5 (2.8)  
  No 2379 (97.7) Reference 172 (97.2)  
 UPDRS II: Activities of daily living, mean ± SD 12.5 ± 8.2 1.04 (1.00–1.07) 13.9 ± 6.7  
 Delphi 8. Moderate or severe limitation of activities of daily living
  Yes 854 (35.5) 1.38 (0.97–1.96) 70 (39.8)  
  No 1550 (64.5) Reference 106 (60.2)  
Health-related quality of life
 PDQ-8 score, mean ± SD 28.9 ± 19.8 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 28.4 ± 17.4  
Non-motor symptom
 NMSS score, mean ± SD 46.4 ± 39.1 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 52.6 ± 44.2  
 Delphi 11. Moderate or severe psychosis
  Yes 100 (4.2) 2.61 (1.16–5.88) 7 (4.3)  
  No 2290 (95.8) Reference 154 (95.7)  
 Delphi 5. Non-motor symptoms fluctuations
  Yes 938 (38.6)   80 (45.2) 4.31 (1.06–17.54)
  No 1492 (61.4)   97 (54.8) Reference
Physician characteristic
 Unit part of a dedicated referral network for PD, n (%)
  Yes 1714 (70.3) 1.40 (1.04–1.89) 127 (71.8)  
   No 724 (29.7) Reference 50 (28.2)  
 Field of specialty, n (%)
  Neurologist (general) 448 (18.5) Reference 41 (23.2) Reference
  Neurologist (movement disorder specialist 1636 (67.5) 0.43 (0.29–0.61) 60 (33.9) 0.19 (0.03–1.16)
  Geriatrician 20 (0.8) 0.20 (0.02–2.78) 0 (0.0)  
  Other 22 (0.9) 0.45 (0.09–2.32) 0 (0.0)  
  Multiple 299 (12.3) 0.36 (0.21–0.61) 76 (42.9) 2.62 (0.44–15.45)
Site characteristic
 Site treatment algorithm, n (%)
  Yes 405 (16.8) 2.83 (1.94–4.12) 8 (4.5)  
  No 2007 (83.2) Reference 169 (95.5)  
  1. CI, confidence interval; NMSS, Non-Motor Symptoms Scale for Parkinson’s Disease; OR, odds ratio; PD, Parkinson’s disease; PDQ-8, 8-item Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire; SD, standard deviation; UPDRS, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale
  2. Only variables included in the international or German regression models are shown. Cells highlighted in gray refer to variables, which were not included in the regression model