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Table 1 Design and baseline data from the six randomised studies on PFO closure in cryptogenic stroke [9, 11, 23]

From: Cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (abridged and translated version)

Parameters Closure I PC Trial RESPECTa REDUCE CLOSE Defense PFO
Patients (n) 909 414 980 664 663 120
Mean age 46 44.5 46 42.2 43.3 51.8
RLS (%) 53 65.6 48.8 81.3 100 53
ASA (%) 36.6 23.7 35.7 20.6 32.8 10
ATH ASA, OAC APT, OAC APT, OAC APT APT, OAC APT
OAC (%) 34 31 25 0 28 0
Device STARFlex Amplatzer PFO Amplatzer PFO Cardioform Helex no specification Amplatzer
Endpoint Stroke, TIA, death Death, stroke, TIA, embolism Stroke, early death Stroke Stroke Stroke, vascular death, TIMI bleeding
Follow-up (months) 44 49 70.8 38.4 63.6 24
  1. RLS moderate or major right-to-left shunt, ASA atrial septal aneurysm, ATH antithrombotic therapy, ASA acetylsalicylic acid, APT antiplatelet therapy, OAC oral anticoagulation
  2. aData refer to the second evaluation of the study at 5.9 years [9]