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Table 1 Features and antibodies characteristic of autoimmune encephalitis in children and adolescents. The list of antibodies may not be exhaustive, as the field is still young and there are still reports of new associations from the pediatric age range. Abbreviations are spelled out in the list at the beginning of the article

From: Autoimmune encephalitis in children and adolescents

FeaturesTypical antibodies in the pediatric age range: Anti-…
 Limbic encephalitisLGI1, CASPR2, GABABR, GAD65, Hu, DNER
 Encephalopathy (in the sense of a diffuse affection of brain function)NMDAR, GABABR, mGluR5
 Brainstem encephalitisGQ1b
 Cerebellitis/autoimmune cerebellar syndromeDNER, VGCC, NMDAR, mGluR1a
 Opsoclonus myoclonus syndromeHu, GAD65
 Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonusGAD65, GlyR
 Demyelinating diseasesMOG, Aquaporin-4, NMDAR*
Patient and medical history
 GirlsGAD65 (NMDAR?)
 Other autoimmune diseaseGAD65
 Epilepsy onset along with prominent psychiatric or cognitive symptomsLGI1, CASPR2, NMDAR, GABABR, GAD65, Hu, DNER
 Onset with status epilepticus or very high seizure frequencyNMDAR, LGI1, GABAAR, GABABR, GAD65
 Non-viral secondary disease after viral encephalitisNMDAR and not further characterized surface antigens
 Encephalopathy after respiratory infectionMOG
 NeoplasmOnconeural; mGluR5 (Hodgkin disease)
Paraclinical findings
 EEG: “extreme delta brush”NMDAR
 Increased CSF count or autochthonous oligoclonal bandsAll except LGI1
 MRI: encephalitic lesion(s)LGI1, CASPR2, GABABR, GAD, Hu, DNER
 MRI: demyelinationMOG, Aquaporin-4, NMDAR
 Encephalitic histopathologyAll
  1. aUnpublished own observation
  2. *Overlap syndromes