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Table 3 Antibodies and encephalitic syndromes in children and adolescents

From: Autoimmune encephalitis in children and adolescents

Antibodies againstSyndromesFurther reading
NMDAREncephalopathy[25, 28]
GAD65Limbic (and extralimbic) encephalitis, stiff-man-syndrome (SMS)/progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM)[41,42,43,44]
LGI1Mainly limbic encephalitis[34, 35]
CASPR2Mainly diffuse encephalitis, encephalopathy or seizure disorder[34]
LGI1 and CASPR2 (double positive)Mainly Morvan syndrome or neuromyotonia[34]
GlyRSMS/PERMa[45]
γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor (GABAAR)Encephalitis[46,47,48]
γ-aminobutyric acid-B receptor (GABABR)Encephalitis with opsoclonus, ataxia, chorea, and seizures[49]
Onconeural antigens (Hu and others)Mostly paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis[41, 50,51,52]
GQ1bBickerstaff brainstem encephalitis[40]
mGluR1CerebellitisOwn unpublished observation
mGluR5Encephalitis with cognitive and psychiatric problems, seizures[53]
Basal ganglia (dopamine receptor 2 [DR2])bBasal ganglia encephalitis, chorea minor Sydenham, Tourette’s syndrome[54,55,56]
  1. aGlyR with syndromes different from SMS/PERM are probably non-specific [8]
  2. bThese antibodies were originally described in 12 pediatric patients with basal ganglia encephalitis or Sydenham chorea (chorea minor), occasionally Tourette’s syndrome (not, however, in Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections [PANDAS]) [54]. Until now, these results have not been reproduced by other laboratories