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Table 4 First-line and second-line therapy in autoimmune encephalitides according to [24]

From: Autoimmune encephalitis in children and adolescents

First line
 CorticosteroidsNo details on doses or durations given
 Plasma exchange
 Intravenous immunoglobulins
Second line (if first line did not work within 10 daysa)
 Rituximab4 × 375 mg/m2 i.v., weekly administration
 Cyclophosphamideb750 mg/m2 i.v. per month
  1. aThis has been said for anti-NMDAR encephalitis. In other, less severe forms of autoimmune encephalitis, one may wait longer before one moves on to second-line therapy. bIn pediatric patients, cyclophosphamide is less frequently used compared to rituximab