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Table 1 Characteristics of enrolled ICH and AIS patients. The effect size – Cohen’s d – for the derivation and validation cohort as well as the p-values for Chi-Square and non-parametric Mann-Whitney-U as well as Fisher’s exact test (not adjusted for multiple testing) are depicted

From: Probability assessment of intracerebral hemorrhage in prehospital emergency patients

A) Derivation cohort
All patients
(n = 416)
AIS/TIA/ SM (n = 384)
TIA patients (n = 41)
SM patients (n = 119)
ICH patients (n = 32) AIS patients (n = 224) Cohen’s d (pooled SD)
AIS-ICH
Chi-Square test#
Mann-Whitney-U test*
Age (years) [95% CI] 71.5 ± 11.4
[67.3, 75.6]
74.9 ± 12.4
[73.3, 76.6]
0.3 (12.3)
p = 0.11*
No. of female patients (relative No. in %) 13 (40.6%) 127 (56.7%) p = 0.02#
SP (mmHg) (mean average ± SD) [95% CI] 197 ± 34
[185, 210]
164 ± 32
[160, 168]
1.0 (32.5)
p < 0.01*
DP (mmHg) (mean average ± SD) [95% CI] 110 ± 28
[99, 120]
94 ± 23
[91, 97]
0.7 (23.4)
p < 0.01*
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg)
(mean average ± SD) [95% CI]
139 ± 28
[129, 149]
117 ± 24
[114, 120]
0.9 (24.4)
p < 0.01*
SP ≥ 180 mmHg (relative No. in %) 21 (65.6%) 72 (32.1%) p < 0.01#
DP ≥ 110 mmHg (relative No. in %) 10 (31.3%) 42 (18.8%) p = 0.1#
MAP ≥ 130 mmHg (relative No. in %) 17 (53.1%) 55 (24.6%) p < 0.01#
NIHSS (points) [median (IQR)] 15 (15) 7 (12) n. a.
NIHSS ≥ 10
No. of patients (in %)
19 (59.4%) 90 (40.2%) p = 0.04#
NIHSS ≥ 15
No. of patients (in %)
16 (50.0%) 58 (25.9%) p = 0.01#
NIHSS (LOC) (mean average ± SD) [95% CI] 0.5 ± 0.9
[0.2, 0.8]
0.2 ± 0.5
[0.2, 0.3]
0.5 (0.6)
p = 0.11*
NIHSS (LOC) ≥ 1
No. of patients (in %)
9 (28.1%) 39 (17.4%) p = 0.15#
Arterial hypertension
No. of patients (in %)
26 (81.3%) 173 (77.2%) p = 0.61#
Atrial fibrillation
No. of patients (in %)
6 (18.8%) 94 (42.0%) p = 0.01#
Seizure
No. of patients (in %)
0 2 (0.9%) n. a.
ph-ICH score (points) (mean average ± SD) 1.8 ± 1.2 1.0 ± 0.9 0.9 (0.9)
p < 0.01*
B) Validation cohort
All patients (n = 285) ICH patients (n = 33) AIS patients (n = 252) Cohen’s d (pooled SD)
AIS-ICH
Chi-Square test#
Mann-Whitney-U test*
Fisher’s exact test+
Age (years) [95% CI] 73.3 ± 11.4
[69.2, 77.4]
73.9 ± 13.9
[72.2, 75.7]
0.1 (13.7)
p = 0.63*
No. of female patients (relative No. in %) 15 (45.5%) 119 (47.2%) p = 0.85#
SP (mmHg) (mean average ± SD) [95% CI] 189 ± 35
[176, 202]
163 ± 31
[159, 166]
0.9 (31.2)
p < 0.01*
DP (mmHg) (mean average ± SD) [95% CI] 104 ± 29
[94, 115]
87 ± 18
[85, 89]
0.9 (19.1)
p < 0.01*
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg)
(mean average ± SD) [95% CI]
133 ± 29
[122, 143]
112 ± 19
[110, 114]
1.0 (20.6)
p < 0.01*
SP ≥ 180 mmHg (relative No. in %) 20 (60.6%) 83 (32.9%) p < 0.01#
DP ≥ 110 mmHg (relative No. in %) 14 (42.4%) 25 (9.9%) p < 0.01+
MAP ≥ 130 mmHg (relative No. in %) 16 (48.5%) 45 (17.9%) p < 0.01#
NIHSS (points)
[median (IQR)]
15 (12) 6 (9) n. a.
NIHSS ≥ 10
No. of patients (in %)
23 (69.7%) 76 (30.2%) p < 0.01#
NIHSS ≥ 15
No. of patients (in %)
17 (51.5%) 44 (17.5%) p < 0.01#
NIHSS (LOC) (mean average ± SD) [95% CI] 0.5 ± 0.8
[0.2, 0.7]
0.1 ± 0.3
[0.1, 0.1]
1.0 (0.4)
p < 0.01*
NIHSS (LOC) ≥ 1
No. of patients (in %)
11 (33.3%) 15 (6.0%) p < 0.01+
Arterial hypertension
No. of patients (in %)
31 (93.9%) 210 (83.3%) p = 0.11#
Atrial fibrillation
No. of patients (in %)
5 (15.2%) 79 (31.3%) p = 0.06#
ph-ICH score (points) (mean average ± SD) 1.8 ± 0.9 0.8 ± 0.7 1.4 (0.7)
p < 0.01*
C) ph-ICH score with single items
All patients – Derivation cohort
(n = 416)
ICH patients
(n = 32)
AIS/TIA/ SM patients (n = 384) AIS patients (n = 224) TIA patients (n = 41) SM patients (n = 119)
SP ≥ 180 mmHg (relative No. in %) 21 (65.6%) 106 (27.6%) 72 (32.1%) 9 (22.0%) 25 (21.0%)
NIHSS (LOC) ≥ 1
No. of patients (in %)
9 (28.1%) 56 (14.6%) 39 (17.4%) 1 (2.4%) 16 (13.5%)
NIHSS item: LOC (mean average ± SD) [95% CI] 0.5 ± 0.9
[0.2, 0.8]
0.2 ± 0.5
[0.1, 0.2]
0.2 ± 0.5
[0.2, 0.3]
0.0 ± 0.3
[0.0, 0.2]
0.2 ± 0.5
[0.1, 0.3]
NIHSS item: following commands (mean average ± SD) [95% CI] 0.8 ± 0.9
[0.5, 1.1]
0.4 ± 0.7
[0.4, 0.5]
0.5 ± 0.8
[0.4, 0.6]
0.3 ± 0.7
[0.1, 0.5]
0.4 ± 0.7
[0.3, 0.6]
NIHSS item: visual field (mean average ± SD) [95% CI] 0.5 ± 0.8
[0.2, 0.8]
0.2 ± 0.6
[0.2, 0.3]
0.2 ± 0.6
[0.1, 0.3]
0.3 ± 0.8
[0.1, 0.6]
0.2 ± 0.6
[0.1, 0.3]
NIHSS item: motor weakness (right arm)
(mean average ± SD) [95% CI]
1.8 ± 1.8
[1.1, 2.4]
0.6 ± 1.1
[0.5, 0.7]
0.8 ± 1.3
[0.6, 1.0]
0.1 ± 0.4
[0.0, 0.2]
0.3 ± 0.8
[0.2, 0.5]
NIHSS item: motor weakness (left arm)
(mean average ± SD) [95% CI]
1.4 ± 1.7
[0.8, 2.0]
0.7 ± 1.3
[0.6, 0.9]
0.9 ± 1.5
[0.7, 1.1]
0.4 ± 1.1
[0.1, 0.8]
0.5 ± 1.1
[0.3, 0.7]
NIHSS item: motor weakness (right leg)
(mean average ± SD) [95% CI]
1.6 ± 1.7
[1.0, 2.2]
0.6 ± 1.1
[0.5, 0.7]
0.7 ± 1.3
[0.6, 0.9]
0.2 ± 0.6
[0.0, 0.4]
0.4 ± 0.9
[0.3, 0.6]
NIHSS item: motor weakness (left leg)
(mean average ± SD) [95% CI]
1.2 ± 1.6
[0.7, 1.8]
0.7 ± 1.2
[0.6, 0.8]
0.9 ± 1.4
[0.7, 1.1]
0.3 ± 0.9
[0.1, 0.6]
0.5 ± 1.1
[0.3, 0.7]
NIHSS item: sensory disturbance
(mean average ± SD) [95% CI]
1.3 ± 0.9
[0.9, 1.6]
0.5 ± 0.8
[0.5, 0.6]
0.7 ± 0.8
[0.6, 0.8]
0.2 ± 0.5
[0.1, 0.4]
0.3 ± 0.6
[0.2, 0.4]
ph-ICH score 1.8 ± 1.2 0.8 ± 0.8 1.0 ± 0.9 0.4 ± 0.6 0.6 ± 0.7
All patients – Validation cohort
(n = 285)
ICH patients
(n = 33)
  AIS patients
(n = 252)
  
SP ≥ 180 mmHg
(relative No. in %)
20 (60.6%)   83 (32.9%)   
NIHSS (LOC) ≥ 1
No. of patients (in %)
11 (33.3%)   15 (6.0%)   
NIHSS item: LOC
(mean average ± SD) [95% CI]
0.5 ± 0.8
[0.2, 0.7]
  0.1 ± 0.3
[0.0, 0.1]
  
NIHSS item: following commands
(mean average ± SD) [95% CI]
0.7 ± 0.8
[0.4, 1.0]
  0.3 ± 0.7
[0.2, 0.4]
  
NIHSS item: visual field
(mean average ± SD) [95% CI]
0.2 ± 0.6
[0.0, 0.4]
  0.3 ± 0.6
[0.2, 0.3]
  
NIHSS item: motor weakness (right arm)
(mean average ± SD) [95% CI]
1.3 ± 1.7
[0.8, 1.9]
  0.6 ± 1.2
[0.5, 0.8]
  
NIHSS item: motor weakness (left arm)
(mean average ± SD) [95% CI]
1.9 ± 1.8
[1.2, 2.5]
  0.8 ± 1.3
[0.7, 1.0]
  
NIHSS item: motor weakness (right leg)
(mean average ± SD) [95% CI]
1.4 ± 1.7
[0.8, 2.0]
  0.6 ± 1.3
[0.5, 0.8]
  
NIHSS item: motor weakness (left leg)
(mean average ± SD) [95% CI]
1.5 ± 1.7
[0.9, 2.1]
  0.8 ± 1.4
[0.6, 1.0]
  
NIHSS item: sensory disturbance
(mean average ± SD) [95% CI]
1.0 ± 0.8
[0.7, 1.3]
  0.5 ± 0.7
[0.4, 0.6]
  
ph-ICH score 1.8 ± 0.9   0.8 ± 0.7   
  1. AIS Acute ischemic stroke, BP Blood pressure, CI Confidence interval, DP Diastolic blood pressure, ICH Intracerebral hemorrhage, IQR Interquartile range, LOC Level of consciousness, MAP Mean arterial pressure, n. a. Not available, NIHSS National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, No. Number, mmHg Millimeter of mercury, ph-ICH score Prehospital-intracerebral hemorrhage score, SD Standard deviation, SM Stroke mimic, SP Systolic blood pressure, TIA Transient ischemic attack