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Table 1 Multi-component, non-pharmagological interventions to prevent and treat delirium

From: SOP: treatment of delirium

Cognition and orientation Orienting communication
Cognitive stimulation
Avoidance of sensory deprivation
Daily schedule, name plates of staff
Early Mobilisation Ambulation and exercises
Avoidance of immobilisation
Hydration and Nutrition Sufficient fluid intake or fluid supplementation
Sufficient nutrition, feeding assistance
Pain management Screen for pain symptoms (1 x per shift, VAS, NRS, or BPS)
Adequate pain treatment
Medication Check medication daily
Reduce and eliminate unnecessary medication, especially if an anticholinergic mechanism is part of the pharmacodynamic profile (see also: PRISCUS list [6], FORTA list [7], https://americandeliriumsociety.org/files/ACB_Handout_Version_03-09-10.pdf)
Vision and hearing Hearing and vision aids
Sleep-wake cycle Noise reduction at night (schedule adjustment etc.)
Activity during daytime