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Table 1 Publications reporting the clinical efficacy and tolerability of antiseizure medication for treatment of post-stroke epilepsy

From: Seizures and epilepsy in patients with ischaemic stroke

Author Study design Participants (n) Age (years) Medication (mg) Period Seizure recurrence Tolerability Limitations
Alvarez-Sabin et al. [38] Prospective
Observational
48 ischaemic
23 haemorrhagic
63.9 GBP
900–1800 mg
30 months 18% Adverse events 38%;
discontinued 3%
SN, NR, NP
Gilad et al. [28] Prospective
Randomised
64 ischaemic LTG 67.2
CBZ 67.7
LTG 25–200 mg
CBZ 100–600 mg
12 months LTG 28%
CBZ 56%
Discontinued
LTG 3%, CBZ 31%
SN, NP, NDB
Kutlu et al. [116] Prospective
Observational
34 ischaemic 69.8 LEV 1000–2000 mg 17.7 months 18% Discontinued
21%; stopped 3%
SN, NR, NP
Belcastro et al. [30] Prospective
Observational
35 ischaemic 71.9 LEV 1000–2000 mg 18 months 9% Discontinued 11% SN, NR, NP
Consoli et al. [32] Prospective
Randomised
79 ischaemic
27 haemorrhagic
LEV 74.1
CBZ 54
LEV 52
CBZ 54
13,5 months LEV 6%
CBZ 15%
Discontinued LEV 33%, CBZ 39% SN, NP, NDB
Tanaka and Ihara [117] Retrospective
Observational
69 ischaemic
43 haemorrhagic
72.3 23 VPA, 22 PHT
15 CBZ
12 months VPA 48%
PHT 18%
CBZ 13%
SN, mono- and polytherapy
Huang et al. [118] Retrospective
Observational
1729 ischaemic
1893 haemorrhagic
60.3 PHT 2507
VPA 712
CBZ 157
Newer ASM 246
100
person -
months
PHT 1.05% (ER visits)
VPA 0.7%
CBZ 0.4%
Newer ASM 0.38%
Seizure in first 3 months excluded
Sales et al. [39] Retrospective
Observational
76 PSE
1590 EPI*
PSE 63
EPI 61.4
ESL/PSE 887
ESL/EPI 983
12 months 51.4%
68.3%
Adverse events 36% versus 35.8% Multicentric, differences between cohorts
  1. Publications reporting the clinical effectiveness and tolerance for anticonvulsants used for the treatment of PSE, modified after Tanaka and Ihara [117]. Abbreviations: ASM: anti-seizure medication, CBZ: carbamazepine, EPI: epilepsy not associated with stroke (* with differences in age, length of preceding epilepsy treatment), ER: emergency room, ESL: eslicarbazepine, GBP: gabapentin, LEV: levetiracetam, LTG: lamotrigine, NDB: not double-blind, NP: no placebo, NR: non-randomised, PHT: phenytoin, PSE: post-stroke epilepsy, SN: small number of patients; VPA: valproate