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Table 4 Group differences of improvers and non-improvers in the FMA hand score

From: Long-term recovery of upper limb motor function and self-reported health: results from a multicenter observational study 1 year after discharge from rehabilitation

  Total
(n = 50)
Improver
(n = 39)
Non-Improver
(n = 11)
p value
Demographic characteristics
 Female 12 (24) 6 (15) 6 (55) 0.0155
 Age 59 (53–67) 60 (50–65) 59 (56–74) 0.3187
Clinical characteristics
 Ischemic stroke 46 (92) 37 (95) 9 (82) 0.2069
 Baseline NIHSS 4 (2–6) 4 (1.5–6) 3 (2.25–4.75) 0.6984
 Baseline mRS 2 (1–2) 2 (1–2) 2 (1.5–2.5) 0.3416
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Hypertension 42 (84) 34 (87) 8 (73) 0.3533
 Hyperlipidemia 37 (77) 28 (76) 9 (82) 0.7136
 Diabetes mellitus 12 (24) 10 (26) 2 (18) 0.7351
 Atrial fibrillation 2 (5) 2 (7) 0 (0) 1
 Overweight 20 (40) 16 (41) 4 (36) 1
 Nicotine abuse 21 (43) 17 (44) 4 (40) 1
 Alcohol abuse 5 (10) 4 (10) 1 (9) 1
MoCA (at inclusion) 25 (22–27) 25 (23–27) 22 (20.5–24) 0.0252
IMET (at inclusion) 35 (24.75–52) 31 (22.5–51) 50 (35–52) 0.1805
PHQ4 (at inclusion) 3 (1–4) 2.5 (0.25–4) 3 (2–4) 0.6185
Motor therapy duration 46.7 (9–100.4) 48.3 (17.5–101.3) 26.7 (1.7–74.4) 0.3204
PROMIS-10 (at inclusion)
 Physical domain 42.3 (39.8–47.7) 42.3 (39.8–47.7) 42.3 (38.6–44.9) 0.6190
 Mental domain 43.5 (41.1–45.8) 43.5 (41.1–47.68) 41.1 (38.8–44.65) 0.1446
  1. NIHSS: National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, mRS: modified Rankin Scale, MoCA: Montreal Cognitive Assessment, IMET: Index for the Assessment of Health Impairments, PHQ4: Patient Health Questionnaire-4, Motor therapy duration: Mean weekly minutes of physio- or ergotherapy across all follow-ups. Values are reported as numbers (percent) or median (interquartile range) where applicable. Significant p values are displayed in bold