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Table 2 Clinical course by OAT and intracranial bleeding location

From: Intracranial bleeding under vitamin K antagonists or direct oral anticoagulants: results of the RADOA registry

  VKA-ICH
n = 32
DOAC-ICH
n = 25
p-value VKA-SDH
n = 23
DOAC-SDH
n = 14
p-value
Bleeding after fall or likely fall 6 (18.8%) 4 (16.0%) p = 1.0000 11 (47.8%) 8 (57.1%) p = 0.7374
Loss of consciousness 16 (50.0%) 5 (20.0%) p = 0.0275 5 (21.7%) 3 (21.4%) p = 1.0000
Mechanical ventilation 13 (40.6%) 6 (24.0%) p = 0.2597 5 (21.7%) 4 (28.6%) p = 0.7046
Acute renal failure 0 (0.0%) 1 (4.0%) p = 0.4386 1 (4.3%) 1 (7.1%) p = 1.0000
Systolic BP on admission 142 ± 35.5 166 ± 48.7 p = 0.0598 145 ± 24.8 160 ± 24.3 p = 0.1714
Effective anticoagulation on admissiona 32 (100%) 21 (84.0%) p = 0.0320 23 (100%) 12 (85.7%) p = 0.1366
Hematoma volume (mL) 63.8 ± 59.3 20.7 ± 26.6 p = 0.0013 125 ± 58.5 69.7 ± 61.2 p = 0.0287
Small hematoma (< 30 mL) 12 (41.4%) 19 (79.2%) p = 0.0109 0 (0.0%) 3 (30.0%) p = 0.0410
Intraventricular hematoma 17 (60.7%) 10 (43.5%) p = 0.2672    
Hematoma expansion (< 24 h)       
 No 14 (56.0%) 11 (55.0%) p = 1.0000 13 (100%) 5 (55.6%) p = 0.0172
 Yes 5 (20.0%) 9 (45.0%) p = 0.0265 0 (0.0%) 4 (44.4%) p = 0.0172
 Unknown in palliative patients 6 (24.0) 0 (0.0%) p = 0.1071 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) p = 1.0000
Re-bleeding within 30 days (> 24 h)       
 No 22 (95.7%) 19 (100%) p = 1.0000 17 (89.5%) 12 (92.3%) p = 1.0000
 Yes 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) p = 1.0000 2 (10.5%) 1 (7.7%) p = 1.0000
 Unknown in palliative patients 1 (4.3%) 0 (0.0%) p = 1.0000 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) p = 1.0000
PCC application 25 (78.1%) 17 (68.0%) p = 0.5456 21 (91.3%) 11 (78.6%) p = 0.3459
Sufficient PCC application (30-50 IE/kgKG as first application) 16 (66.7%) 12 (70.6%) p = 1.0000 9 (45.0%) 5 (45.5%) p = 1.0000
Operation at bleeding site 12 (46.2%) 8 (36.4%) p = 0.5651 16 (76.2%) 7 (50.0%) p = 0.1534
Re-operation within 30 days 2 (9.1%) 0 (0.0%) p = 0.4902 2 (11.1%) 1 (7.7%) p = 1.0000
30 day in-hospital mortality 12 (37.5%) 3 (12.0%) p = 0.0374 1 (4.3%) 1 (7.1%) p = 1.0000
Palliative care 6 (18.8%) 2 (8.0%) p = 0.4444 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) p = 1.0000
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or mean ± SD
  2. aEffective anticoagulation was assumed if the patient had a plasma DOAC level of > 30 ng/ml and/or a last intake of < 12 h for apixaban and < 24 h for rivaroxaban and edoxaban or a phenprocoumon plasma level of > 0.2 mg/l and/or an INR > 1.3